As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key. A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy. Additional reference materials outside of this website must often be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a “feel” for the history of the bottle in question. The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the early s to the mid th century. For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below.
Evidence Technology Magazine
India[ edit ] Paper spread to India in the 7th century. There was a tradition that Muslims would release their prisoners if they could teach ten Muslims any valuable knowledge. Production began in Baghdad , where a method was invented to make a thicker sheet of paper, which helped transform papermaking from an art into a major industry. The Muslims also introduced the use of trip hammers human- or animal-powered in the production of paper, replacing the traditional Chinese mortar and pestle method.
The age of paper and ink can provide important clues when attempting to verify and authenticate a document. A key example was the Hitler Diaries case from the s—one that involved purported diaries written by Adolf Hitler.
Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Under a Creative Commons license open access Abstract Although degradation of iron gall ink containing paper has been scientifically studied for almost years, we still do not have a good understanding of the kinetics of the process. While many studies focussed on model samples to avoid the inhomogeneity of real historic samples or the need for sampling, this research was conducted on a selection of real documents.
The analytical methods were optimised such that sample consumption was minimised and errors and uncertainties were evaluated. The results show that the rate of degradation, measured as change in the degree of polymerisation of cellulose in paper beneath ink, can be described in Arrhenius terms, and that the apparent activation energy for the process depends on the moisture content in the material. The variation is consistent with the process of hydrolysis becoming less prominent at lower moisture content values, although the results indicate that hydrolytic degradation predominates during natural ink-induced degradation.
In the context of the historic samples used in the study, the presence of ink accelerated the degradation of paper by a constant factor of 1. This indicates that a dose-response function could be developed for ink-induced degradation of paper. Previous article in issue.
Photofading of Ballpoint Dyes Studied on Paper by LDI and MALDI MS
Therefore, it is important to understand the aging process of the different components found in ink. The mass spectrometric methods were first tested and were found to be adequate for the purpose of this work. Moreover, it is possible to analyze the dye from a stroke directly from the paper LDI-MS , so the sample preparation is minimized.
Ballpoint pens are very common scriptural instruments, the inks of which contain equivalent amounts of dyes, solvents, and resins. After deposition on paper, the ink composition begins to change qualitatively and quantitatively: the resins polymerize, the solvents evaporate, and the dyes fade.
Guide to Real Photo Postcards This guide is meant to aid the collector in identifying and dating real photo postcards, and to act as a reminder that it is impossible to do so with great accuracy. Although real photo postcards were made in a variety of ways, they hold one identifiable feature in common. The tonalities of photos are completely continuous to the eye producing true greys, for they are created by the reaction of individual photosensitive molecules to light rather than the transfer of ink from a plate.
In printed images the grey areas are usually made up of black marks that are spaced to create the optical illusion of greys. Though most of us today are familiar with the concept of photo grain, this is mostly because we have experienced very large prints made from small 35mm negatives. But even here the effect is more of a softening of detail than a observable texture.
Early real photo postcards are small by their very nature and since most were contact printed, not enlarged, there is no visible texture. Collotypes, which provide the finest detail of all printing methods are sometimes confused with real photo postcards.
Ink Dating Analysis and Ink Dating Expert Witness Speckin
Dating paper ink Chat room sex talk Aug How you reveal the message depends on the ink you used. Most invisible inks are made visible by heating the paper. Ironing the paper or holding it over a watt bulb are easy ways to reveal these types of messages. The Qianlong Emperor had his own imperial collection of inkstones catalogued into a twenty-four chapter compendium entitled Xiqing yanpu Hsi-ch’ing yen-p’u. Many of these inkstones are housed in the National Palace Museum collection in Taipei.
ink dating ink dating Offices: San Luis Obispo, Forensic Ink Dating is the chemical analysis of inks to determine the age of the ink on paper, or the date of introduction of the ink used on a particular document. trial testimony, legal reports and coink dating.
Deregulated — do not know. Ian, on January 27, at 5: Read somewhere that Sand Canyon, in court testimony, stated that they neither originate nor service mortgages. Their only purpose is to handle litigation regarding Option One. Definitely a criminal organization. Ian, Now that is interesting. It was part of the agreement!!! Mary You have a difficult judge — have to figure out your path — either appeal — or file independent action for fraud in federal court — or fraud on the court.
You are right — part of the problem is that many attorneys just do not fully realize what has been going on. Those that do — are overwhelmed. Which is why I keep saying — where is the DOJ??
Analytical methods for dating modern writing instrument inks on paper by T Sh
Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Create File Forensic Sci Int. Epub Nov Dating of black gel pen ink using the dissolution-diffusion method.
Nov 16, · Photo Paper Pro, Photo Paper Pro II, Photo Paper Plus Glossy, Photo Paper Pro Luster, Glossy Photo Paper, Matte Photo Paper, Ink Jet Hagaki, Hagaki, High Resolution Paper, Other Photo Paper、Greeting Card, Cardstock – Media sizes */5(K).
Usage[ edit ] Traditional East Asian ink is solidified into inksticks. Usually, some water is applied onto the inkstone by means of a dropper to control the amount of water before the bottom end of the inkstick is placed on the grinding surface and then gradually ground to produce the ink. More water is gradually added during the grinding process to increase the amount of ink produced, the excess flowing down into the reservoir of the inkstone where it will not evaporate as quickly as on the flat grinding surface, until e nough ink has been produced for the purpose in question.
The Chinese grind their ink in a circu lar motion with the end flat on the surface whilst the Japanese push one edge of the end of the inkstick back and forth. Water can be stored in a water-holding cavity on the inkstone itself, as was the case for many Song Dynasty — inkstones. The water-holding cavity or water reservoir in time became an ink reservoir on later inkstones. Water was usually kept in a ceramic container and sprinkled on the inkstone.
The inkstone, together with the ink brush , inkstick and Xuan paper , are the four writing implements traditionally known as the Four Treasures of the Study.
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Shop Now Thank you for visiting www. We carry both hand-made papers and machine made mulberry papers including some which are laser or ink jet printer compatible. Take your time browsing our selection and find just the right paper for your project.
The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the ink dating static approach how accurate is ink dating is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time this.
Antique Ink Bottles An ink bottle was made of glass and typically sat on a desk. The writer would dip the pen or quill into the bottle to put more ink on the pen. Because they set on a desk, ink bottles were often decorative. Ink wells as opposed to “ink bottles” were typically metal with a glass insert, often ornate, and sat on a desk.
The larger master ink pint or quart size was used to store ink and refill the smaller ink wells. Ink bottles were shaped so they were hard to tip over. Inks come in many different shapes: Cone inks were used from the early s to early s. They often come in a variety of colors as shown in photo below: Umbrella inks were a “fluted-cone stand”, with eight connecting panels to form the sides; they were used from s to s. Pontilled umbrella inks in fancy colors are some of the most expensive inks sought by collectors.
Hexagonal and octagonal ink bottles were used Igloos or Turtles were used See Lucy Faulkner’s newsletter article on Turtle Inks.
Ink Dating Expert Witness
Order Form Carter’s Ink Cubes This is the place to be for old ink bottles from the early s up to the s. Many of the bottles we have listed are strictly for the ink bottle collector. We also have a number of older ink bottles that still contain useable fountain pen inks which many fountain pen aficionados prefer over modern day inks. In addition to our selection of vintage ink bottles on this page, you’ll also find related items such as ink eraser fluids, rubber stamp inks and traveling ink bottle containers.
Embossed Sanfords on bottom. This bottle would have originally had a cork stopper, but the stopper is missing.
With static ink dating, analysts can determine when an ink was first made available to the public, says Julia Barker, ink library document analyst. This is the most common type of investigative.
When World War I ended at the end of , the rate was lowered to its prewar level of one cent. The postal rate was raised briefly from 1 cent to 2 cents in and in ; the conclusive raise to 2 cents was in Commission Rate Board overestimated revenue needs in and was forced to reduce the postage rate in These were illustrations on government-printed postal cards and on privately printed souvenir cards.
The government postal cards included a printed 1-cent stamp; the privately printed souvenir cards required a 2-cent adhesive postage stamp to be affixed. Messages were not permitted on the address side of the cards; after attempting various forms of explaining that regulation, the U. The required postage was a 1-cent adhesive stamp.